• Industry Glossary

    A

    AA
    Author’s alterations; changes or corrections made by the customer after type has been set, altering the original copy.
    Absorption
    In paper, the property that causes it to take up liquids or vapors in contact with it. In optics, the partial suppression of light through a transparent or translucent material.
    Accordion Fold
    Two or more parallel folds that open like an accordion.
    Acetate
    Thin, flexible sheet of transparent plastic used to make overlays.
    Acid-Free Paper
    Paper with a pH of 7 or slightly above seven, and no residual acid-producing chemicals.
    Acre
    a unit of land area measurement equal to 43,560 square feet.
    Additive Primaries
    In color reproduction, red, green, and blue. When lights of these colors are added together, they produce the sensation of white light.
    Against the Grain
    At right angles to the grain direction of paper.
    Agricultural Byproduct
    Agricultural byproducts are fibrous byproducts, such as cereal straws and corn stalks, which were previously treated as a waste stream. These materials are routinely burned or flooded from fields, wasting resources and damaging the environment. Research is being conducted to transform agricultural byproducts as a waste stream into a resource.
    Airbrush
    A small pressure gun, shaped like a pencil, that sprays watercolor pigment by means of compressed air. Used to create original illustrations and to correct and obtain tone or graduated tone effects. In platemaking, used with an abrasive-like pumice to remove spots or other unwanted areas.
    Alkaline-Sized Paper
    Paper internally sized with a synthetic sizing material and containing a mildly alkaline filler. The pH of alkaline-sized paper is above 7.5.
    Alteration
    Change in copy or specifications made after production has begun.
    Amberlith
    Trade name for orange masking material manufactured by Ulano.
    American Forest & Paper Association (AF&PA)
    The trade association for the U.S. pulp, paper and forest products industry. Certification is the means of auditing a process or operation to determine if it conforms to acceptable standards. Examples are sustainable forest management, procurement and chain-of-custody certification. For instance, International Paper’s procurement and environmental management systems are certified.
    American Tree Farm System (ATFS)
    The Tree Farm System provides conservation education to non-industrial private forestland owners in the United States. The American Tree Farm System has approximately 65,000 Tree Farms totaling almost 26 million acres of non-industrial private forestland certified in the program.
    Annual Growth
    The increase in volume per year of a tree or group of trees, often expressed in cubic feet or board feet.
    Annual Harvest
    The volume of timber removed from the forest in a year, often expressed in cubic feet or board feet.
    Annual Mortality
    The volume, number, or percentage of trees that die per year.
    Antique Finish
    A term describing the surface, usually on book and cover papers, that has a natural rough finish.
    Aperture
    In photography, lens opening or lens stop expressed as an F/stop number such as F/22.
    Artboard
    Alternate term for mechanical.
    Artwork
    Original images, including type, illustrations and photos.
    Ascender
    That part of a lower case letter which rises above the main body, as in the letters b, h, and d.
    ASCII
    Acronym for American Standard Code for Information Interchange, a standard code used to help interface digital equipment.

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    B

    Back Lining
    A paper or fabric adhering to the backbone in a hardcover book.
    Backbone
    The back of a bound book connecting the two covers; also called the spine.
    Backing Up
    Printing on the second side of a printed sheet.
    Bad Break
    In composition, starting a page or ending a paragraph with a “widow” or hyphenated word.
    Banding
    Method of packaging printed pieces using paper, rubber, or fiberglass bands.
    Base Line
    Imaginary horizontal base on which all characters in a line of type align.
    Base Negative
    Negative made from copy pasted to mounting board, or base art, not overlays.
    Basic Size
    The one standard size of each grade of paper used to calculate basis weight.
    Basis Weight
    Weight in pounds of a ream of paper cut to the basic size for its grade.
    Best Management Practices or (BMPs)
    In this report, forestry practices specified in state-level forest management guidelines or legislation. BMPs encompass the practice required by the mandatory forest practice acts in some states as well as the voluntary or quasi-regulatory BMP programs in other states.
    Bind
    To fasten sheets or signatures with glue, wire, thread, or other means.
    Binder’s Board
    Very stiff paperboard used to make covers of case bound books.
    Bindery
    Print shop department or separate business that does trimming, folding, binding, and other finishing tasks.
    Bio Based
    In terms of LEED, a bio-based material, or rapidly renewable material “is derived from plants that are typically harvested within a ten-year cycle or shorter. A typical example would be polylactic acid (PLA) which is a polymer made from corn starch. The USDA defines “biobased” to inlcude any energy, commercial or industrial product (other than food or feed) that is composed in whole of significant part of biological products or renewable domestic agricultural (plant, animal and marine) or forestry animals.
    Biodiversity
    Most broadly, biodiversity encompasses the diversity of life on the planet. Biodiversity includes genetic diversity, the diversity of informationencoded in genes within a species; species diversity, the diversity and relative abundance of species; and community/ecosystem diversity, the diversity of natural communities.
    Biomass
    Mass of organic matter, e.g., the “biomass removed in harvesting” refers to the amount of organic matter – mostly wood in trees, but also twigs and leaves – removed at harvest.
    Black Printer
    In color reproduction, the black plate, made to increase contrast of neutral tones and detail.
    Black-and-White
    Originals or reproductions in single color, as distinguished from multicolor.
    Blanket
    Thick rubber sheet that transfers ink from plate to paper on an offset press.
    Blanket Cylinder
    Cylinder of a press on which the blanket is mounted.
    Bleaching
    Until recently, many paper mills were making paper using chlorine gas, which causes the formation of dioxins and other highly toxic waste materials. There are now bleaching processes that do not involve the formation of harmful compounds.
    Bleed
    Printed image that extends beyond the trim edge of a sheet or page.
    Blind Emboss
    Impression of an uninked image on the back of a sheet, producing a raised image on the front of the sheet.
    Blowup
    To enlarge photographically.
    Blueline
    Prepress, photographic proof where all colors show as blue image on white paper.
    Board
    Alternate term for Mechanical.
    Board foot
    the amount of wood in an unfinished board 1 inch thick, 12 inches long, and 12 inches wide.
    Body
    The viscosity, or consistency of printing ink (e.g., an ink with too much body is stiff).
    Body Copy
    The main part or text of a printed piece, as distinguished from the heading.
    Body Type
    Typestyle used for the main part or text of a printed piece, as distinguished from the heading.
    Bold-Face Type
    ype that is heavier than the text weight type of a particular typeface.
    Bond Paper
    A grade of writing or printing paper in which strength, durability, and permanence are essential requirements; used for letterheads, business forms, etc.
    Book Paper
    A general term for coated and uncoated papers. The basic size is 25″ x 38″.
    Bookbinder
    Alternate term for Trade Bindery.
    Brightness
    One of the three dimensions of color. Brightness is the intensity of light reflection or transmission and is considered as a separate value from color saturation and hue. In photography, light reflected by the copy. In paper, the reflectance or brilliance of the paper.
    Bristol
    Type of board paper used for postcards, business cards, and other heavy-use products.
    Broadside
    Any large advertising circular.
    Brochure
    A pamphlet bound or folded in booklet form.
    Broken Carton
    Less than one full carton of paper.
    Broken Image
    An incomplete image on a plate.
    Broker
    Agent who supplies printing from many printing companies.
    Bronzing
    Printing with sizing ink, then applying bronze powder to the wet ink to produce a metallic luster.
    Bulk
    The degree of thickness of paper. In book printing, the number of pages per inch for a given basis weight.
    Bulk Pack
    To pack printed pieces in boxes without prior wrapping in bundles.
    Bullet
    Bold dot used for emphasis.
    Bump Exposure
    An exposure in halftone photography, especially with contact screens, in which the screen is removed for a short time. It increases highlight contrast and drops out the dots in the whites.
    Bureau Veritas Quality International (BVQI)
    BVQI provides second and third party auditing services to international standards, industry initiatives and custom requirements to help companies achieve recognition of quality environmental and health & safety management systems.
    Burn
    A term used for exposure in platemaking.
    Burnish
    To smooth and seal by rubbing elements adhered to a mechanical.
    Butt
    To join without overlapping.
    Butt Fit
    Ink colors overlapped only a hairline so they appear perfectly butted.

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    C

    C corporation (C-corp)
    A corporation that elects to be taxed as a corporation. The C-corp pays federal and state income taxes on earnings at a corporate rate.
    C Print
    Color photographic print made from a negative on C Print paper.
    CAD/CAM
    Computer Assisted Design/Computer Assisted Makeup or Manufacturing.
    Calender
    To make paper smooth and glossy by passing it between rollers during manufacturing.
    Caliper
    Thickness of paper usually expressed in thousandths of an inch.
    Camera Direct Plate
    An offset printing plate produced directly from original copy without a negative.
    Camera-Ready Copy
    Mechanicals, photographs, and art fully prepared to be photographed for platemaking.
    Cap Height
    Height of the capital letters of a typeface.
    Caps and Small Caps
    Two sizes of capital letters made in one size of type, the small caps being the same height as the “x” height of the lower case letters.
    Caption
    Identifying or descriptive text accompanying a photograph or other visual element.
    Carbon sequestration
    The long-term storage of carbon in forests, soils, the ocean, and other carbon “sinks.” Carbon sequestration projects can take three forms: forest sequestration, agricultural sequestration, and technology development for CO2 capture and storage.
    Case Bind
    To bind by gluing signatures to a case made of binder’s board covered with fabric, plastic, or leather, yielding hardcover books.
    Cast Coated
    Coated paper with a high gloss enamel finish.
    Catching Up
    A term which indicates that the non-image areas of a press plate are starting to take ink or scum.
    Center Marks
    Lines on a mechanical, negative, plate, or press sheet indicating the center.
    Centered
    Type with the middle of each line at the midline of the column.
    Color Electronic Prepress System (CEPS)
    A computer based system for the graphic arts industry that electronically simulates the traditionally labor intensive or cumbersome tasks associated with page makeup and color image manipulation.
    CERFLOR
    The Brazilian Association for Technical Standardization is responsible for establishing and operating CERFLOR, a national forest certification scheme in Brazil. CERFLOR is a voluntary and independent scheme conceived by SBS and managed by ABNT since 1990. It is practically ready to become operational this year after completion of field tests. In its first stage CERFLOR will be applicable to planted forests. CERFLOR was developed in accordance with internationally recognized and accepted forest management certification procedures. It is a comprehensive program that provides: i) P, C, and I for SFM assessment; ii) procedures for establishing and monitoring chain of custody, and iii) procedures for product labeling and logo use.
    Certification
    The means of auditing a process or operation to determine if it conforms to acceptable standards. Examples are sustainable forest management, procurement and chain-of-custody certification. For instance, International Paper’s procurement and environmental management systems are certified.
    Chain-of-custody Certification
    This refers to the act of tracking fiber from its point of origin in the field through harvesting, processing and sale to the customer. A chain-of-custody is required for label use or other public claims about a product. A third-party audit verifies tracking of amount of certified fiber entering that part of the chain-of-custody, for example a paper mill. This requires tracing the origin of wood from forest to manufacturing site to product. Any non-certified portion of wood fiber entering the chain must meet other requirements which vary by standard. SFI, PEFC, and FSC all offer chain-of-custody certifications as part of their programs.
    Chalking
    In printing, a term which refers to improper drying of ink. Pigment dusts off because the vehicle has been absorbed too rapidly into the paper.
    Character
    Any letter, numeral, symbol, or punctuation mark making up a type font.
    Character Count
    Number of characters in a pica, inch, line, column, or page. It is different for each typeface and size and varies when type is extended or condensed.
    Chemical Pulp/Fibers
    Wood pulp/fibers obtained by digestion and bleaching of wood chips to remove lignin and other organic materials surrounding cellulose fibers and to isolate them for papermaking.
    Chipboard
    Inexpensive, single-ply cardboard, usually brown or gray.
    Chlorine Gas
    This bleaching process is the most harmful for the environment and is largely responsible for the release of dioxins into the environment. Unfortunately, even today, many mills still use chlorine gas during the bleaching process.
    Chrome
    A positive transparent photographic image, also known as a color transparency.
    Circular Screen
    A circular-shaped halftone screen that enables the camera operator to obtain proper screen angles for color halftones by rotating the screen.
    Clearcutting
    Harvesting/regeneration method in which all merchantable trees (commercial clearcutting) or all trees (silvi-cultural clearcutting) in a stand are harvested in one operation. Clearcutting is also used in even-aged silviculture to regenerate an even-aged stand of desired shade-intolerant trees. In practice, most clearcuts are commercial clearcuts.
    Cleat Bind
    Alternate term for Side Stitch.
    Clip Art
    Retail, non-copyrighted black and white art, printed on white paper for artists’ use when preparing mechanicals.
    CMYK
    The four process colors cyan, magenta, yellow, and black. “K” is used to stand for black to avoid confusion with blue.
    Coarse Screen
    Screen with ruling of fewer than 133 lines per inch.
    Coated Paper
    Paper with a surface coating that produces a smooth finish to improve ink holdout. Surfaces vary from matte to glossy.
    Coating
    In platemaking, the light-sensitive polymer or mixture applied to a metal plate. In printing, an emulsion, varnish or lacquer applied over a printed surface to give it added protection.
    Cold Color
    A color which is on the bluish side.
    Cold Type
    Alternate term for Strike-On or Phototype.
    Collate
    To assemble sheets into proper sequence. In binding, the gathering of sheets or signatures.
    Color Bar
    Strip of colors printed near the edge of a press sheet to help evaluate ink density and registration.
    Color Break
    In multicolor printing, the point or line at which one ink color stops and another begins.
    Color Build
    The overprinting of colors or screened colors to produce a different color.
    Color Cast
    The predominance of a color or tint in a full-color photograph, sometimes caused by using the wrong kind of lighting or the wrong kind of photographic emulsion.
    Color Correct
    In four-color process work, small adjustments are often needed to satisfy the preferences of a customer or to compensate for the behavior of printing inks, grades of paper, and inaccuracies in reproduction. This color-correction may be done photographically, during the process of making negatives and printing plates, or by scanning the artwork into a computer system and adjusting the hue, saturation, and/or brightness of the image before color separations are created.
    Color Filter
    A sheet of dyed glass, gelatin, or plastic used in photography to absorb certain colors and permit better rendition of others. The filters used for color separation are: red, green, blue.
    Color Key
    3M™ trade name for overlay color proof.
    Color Matching System
    System of numbered ink swatches that facilitates communication about color.
    Color Process
    Alternate term for 4-Color or full color.
    Color Saturation
    The strength of a color, or how far it is from gray. The greater the saturation of a color, the farther it is from gray.
    Color Separation
    The process of preparing color work for printing by breaking down the image or publication into the four process printing color inks: cyan, magenta, yellow, and black (CMYK). Each ink color is represented on a single sheet of film. Also, the set of four halftone negatives for making plates for 4-color process printing.
    Color Transparency
    A positive photographic image through which light must pass to view or reproduce the image.
    Comb Bind
    To bind by inserting teeth of a flexible plastic comb through holes in a stack of paper.
    Complementary Color
    Also known as subtractive or secondary color, it is the color resulting from a combination of any two of the three additive primaries (red, green, and blue); for example, red plus blue equals magenta.
    Compose
    To set type.
    Composite Negative
    Negative made by combining two or more pieces of film.
    Composite Proof
    Proof of color separations in position with graphics and type.
    Comprehensive Dummy
    Complete simulation of a printed piece. Sometimes referred to as a “comp.”
    Condensed Type
    Characters that are narrow in proportion to their height, thus seeming tall and tightly spaced.
    Contact Print
    Photographic print made by exposing a negative in direct, uniform contact with paper.
    Contact Screen
    A photographically-made halftone screen on film having dot structure of graded density, used in vacuum contact with the photographic film to produce halftones.
    Contaminant
    Material in waste paper that interferes with fiber recovery and recycling, such as non-water-soluble adhesives, plastic film or foam, rubber, metal, glass, asphalt, carbon paper, laser printed stock, laminated materials and wet strength papers.
    Contaminant Color
    Also known as chroma, it is the unwanted grayness and desaturation of color caused by the imperfect nature of printing ink, which reflects some of the color it should absorb, reducing the purity of the color and making color correction necessary.
    Continuous-Tone Copy
    Photographs and illustrations having a range of shades.
    Contrast
    Range of gradations in tones between lightest white and darkest black in continuous-tone copy or the abrupt change between light and dark in line copy.
    Conservation easement
    A deed restriction landowners voluntarily place on their property to protect resources, such as productive agricultural land, ground and surface water, wildlife habitat, historic sites, or scenic views. Conservation easements are used by landowners to authorize a qualified conservation organization to monitor and enforce the restrictions set forth in the agreement.
    Converter
    Business that combines printed sheets with other materials to make boxes, displays, envelopes, etc.
    Copy
    For an editor or typesetter, all written material. For a graphic designer or printer, everything that will be printed, including art, photographs, and graphics, as well as words.
    Copyboard
    Part of a camera that holds copy in position to be photographed.
    Copyfit
    To use character counts and editing to plan so that type fits space allotted by the layout.
    Copyfitting
    The calculation of how much space a given amount of copy will take up in a given size and typeface. Also the adjusting of the type size to make it fit in a given amount of space.
    Copyright
    Ownership of creative work by the writer, photographer, or artist who made it.
    Corner Marks
    Lines on a mechanical, negative, plate, or press sheet showing the corners of a page or finished piece.
    Corrugated
    Characteristic of board for boxes made by sandwiching fluted kraft paper between sheets of paper or cardboard.
    Cotton Content Paper
    Paper made from cotton fibers in addition to wood pulp.
    Cover Stock
    Grade of paper made for covers and postcards.
    Crash Printing
    Letterpress printing on carbon or carbonless forms so image prints simultaneously on all sheets in the set.
    Creep
    Phenomenon of middle pages of a folded signature extending slightly beyond outside pages.
    Cromalin
    DuPont® trade name for integral color proof.
    Crop
    To eliminate portions of an illustration or photograph so the remainder is clearer, more interesting, or better suited to the layout.
    Crop Marks:
    Lines near the margins of artwork or photos indicating where to cut, perforate, or fold.
    Cross Direction
    The direction across the grain of paper.
    Crossover
    Image that continues from one page of a publication across the gutter to the opposite page.
    Cut Stock
    Paper distributor term for paper 11″ x 17″ or smaller.
    Cutscore
    In die-cutting, a sharp-edged knife cut, usually several thousandths of an inch lower than the cutting rules in a die, made to cut part way into the paper or board for folding purposes.
    CWT
    Paper distributor abbreviation for 100 pounds.
    Cyan
    One of the four process colors; also known as process blue.

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    D

    Dampener
    In lithography, cloth-covered parchment paper or rubber (bare back) roller that distributes the dampening solution to the press plate or ink roller.
    Dampener Fountain
    Alternative term for water fountain on a press.
    Dampening System
    The mechanism on a press for transferring dampening solution to the plate during printing.
    Dandy Roll
    A wire cylinder on papermaking machines that makes wove or laid effects on the texture, as well as the watermark itself. Used in the manufacture of better grades of business and book papers.
    Data Conversion
    To change digital information from its original code so that it can be recorded by an electronic memory using a different code.
    DDCP
    Direct Digital Color Proofing, a prepress proofing method which creates color proofs without any need for film or plates by using only digital data.
    Deboss
    To press an image into paper so it lies below the surface.
    Deckle Edge
    Feathered edge on specially-made sheets of text and cover paper.
    Deinked Pre-Consumer Waste
    This paper has been printed but not used by consumers, such as waste from printers and unsold magazines and publications. It is processed like post- consumer waste and is deinked for reuse.
    Deinking
    The process of separating fibers from printed recovered paper by the action of heat, chemicals, and mechanical treatments. These agents detach ink from paper, followed by removal of ink, coatings, fillers, unwanted materials and contaminants.
    Densitometer
    An instrument which measures the lightness or darkness of an image. A reflection densitometer measures the light reflected by an area which has been darkened by ink or by photographic processing. A transmission densitometer measures light transmitted through an area of film.
    Densitometer
    Instrument used to measure light reflecting from or transmitted through copy.
    Density
    The amount an object absorbs or reflects light is described as density level. High density objects absorb or stop light; low density objects reflect or transmit light.
    Density Range
    Expression of contrast between darkest and lightest areas of copy.
    Descender
    Portion of a lower case letter falling below its base line as in the letters g, p, and y.
    Developer
    In photography, the chemical agent and process used to render photographic images visible after exposure to light. In lithographic platemaking, the material used to remove the unexposed coating.
    Diazo
    A non silver coating for photographic contact printing. In offset platemaking it is a coating used on wipe-on and presensitized plates.
    Die
    Sharp metal rule used for die cutting or block of metal used for embossing or foil stamping.
    Die-Cutting
    Cutting shapes in paper using metal rules mounted on a letterpress.
    Die-Stamping
    An intaglio process for the production of letterheads, cards, etc., printing from lettering or other designs engraved into copper or steel.
    Digital Type
    Type whose font characters are stored in a typesetter’s computer as digital information.
    Dingbat
    Symbol used for emphasis or decoration.
    Direct Mail
    Mail designed to motivate readers to respond directly to senders with a purchase, donation, or other action.
    Display Type
    Type used to attract attention. Display type is usually set larger than the text and is used for headings, titles or signage.
    Dodge
    To block light from selected areas while making a photographic print.
    Dot Etching
    A technique to reduce the size of halftone dots on photographic film. In manual dot etching, often referred to as wet etching, acid is applied to the film. In photographic dot etching, masks are used. Note that when dot etching is done on a negative, the smaller dots translate into an increase in color when the job is printed onto paper.
    Dot Etching
    Chemical or photographic method of reducing halftone dots in negatives to increase or reduce the amount of color to be printed.
    Dot Gain or Dot Spread
    An increase in the size of halftone dots that naturally occurs during the steps between screening an image and printing it onto paper. Common causes of excessive dot gain are incorrect film or plate exposure, wrong tack or incorrect viscosity of printing ink, excessive ink film thickness, internal reflection of the ink, or incorrect pressure settings on the press.
    Dot Loss
    Disappearance of a dot from the plate.
    Double Burn
    To expose a plate or proof to two negatives to create a composite image.
    Draw Down
    Sample of specified ink and paper, used to evaluate color.
    Drier
    In inkmaking, any substance added to hasten drying.
    Drill
    To bore holes in paper so sheets fit over posts of loose-leaf binders.
    Dropout Halftone
    Halftone in which the highlight areas contain no dots.
    Dry Gum Paper
    Label paper with glue on one side that can be activated by water.
    Dull Finish
    Paper finish that is matte; not shiny.
    Dull Ink or Varnish
    Alternate term for Matte Ink or Varnish.
    Dummy
    A preliminary layout showing the positions of illustrations and text as they are to appear in the final reproduction. Also a set of blank pages made up in advance to show the size, shape, form, and general style of a printed piece.
    Duotone
    A one color photograph reproduced from two halftone negatives and usually printed in two ink colors.
    Duplex Paper
    Paper with a different color or finish on each side.
    Duplicator
    Small offset press using paper 12″ x 18″ or smaller (not to be confused with spirit duplicator).
    Dylux
    DuPont® trade name for photographic paper used to make blueline proofs.

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    E

    Eco-metrics
    Measurement system developed and used by Interface, INC. and its businesses to benchmark and track environmental performnce in a variety of key areas including waste reduction, renewable energy, GHG emissions, water usage and transportation.
    Ecosystem
    An ecosystem is a community or organisms (plant, animal and other living organisms) together with their environment functioning as an ecological unit.
    Electronic Page Assembly
    Computerized assembly and manipulation of type, graphics, and other visual elements.
    Electronic Retouching
    Using a computer and appropriate software to enhance or correct a scanned photograph.
    Elemental Chlorine Free (ECF)
    This bleaching process uses chlorine compounds to whiten the pulp. While a significantly cleaner process than chlorine gas bleaching, it still causes the formation of harmful organochlorides, which can be released into the environment.
    Elliptical Dot
    In halftone photography, elongated dots which give improved gradation of tones particularly in middle tones and vignettes-also called chain dots.
    Em Space
    A space whose width equals the point size of the type being set. Also called mutton.
    Emboss
    To press an image in relief to achieve a raised surface.
    Emmision
    Gas emitted into the air from industrail and chemical processes, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen gas.
    En
    One-half the width of an em.
    Enamel Paper
    Alternate term for Coated Paper with high gloss finish.
    End Sheets
    Sheets on the inside covers of a case bound book.
    Endangered species
    Any species of plant or animal defined through the Endangered Species Act of 1976 as being in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range, and published in the Federal Register.
    Engraver
    Person who makes a plate for engraving.
    Engraving
    Method of printing using a plate, also called a die, with an image carved into it.
    Estimate
    Price that states what a job will probably cost based on initial specifications from the customer.
    Etch
    Using chemicals to produce an image on a plate by chemical or electrolytic action.
    Exposure Time
    Time required for light to record an image while striking light-sensitive emulsion.
    Extended/Expanded Type
    Characters wide in proportion to their height, thus seeming fat and loosely-spaced.

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    F

    “F” Stops
    In photography, fixed stops for setting lens apertures.
    Facsimile Transmission (Fax)
    Process of scanning graphic images to convert them into electric signals which are transmitted to produce a recorded likeness of the original via phone lines.
    Fake Duotone
    Halftone in one ink color printed over screen tint or solid of a second ink color.
    Family Forest Owners
    Private landowners who cultivate forests on their land for commercial. These landowners have chosen to grow trees as a sustainable crop which requires less intensive management and (longer crop rotations) than traditional agriculture. The income derived from sustainable forestry enables landowners to keep family lands while providing jobs for local economies and personal enjoyment of wildlife and recreation on their property.
    Fast Film
    Film that requires relatively little light to record an image.
    Felt Side
    The smoother side of the paper for printing. The top side of the sheet in paper manufacturing.
    Filling In/Up
    In letterpress or offset-lithography, a condition in which ink fills the area between the halftone dots or plugs up (fills in) the type.
    Film Laminate
    Thin sheet of plastic adhered to printed paper for protection.
    Filter
    Colored glass or gelatin used to reduce or eliminate specific colors from light before it strikes film or paper.
    Final Count
    Number of printed pieces delivered and charged for.
    Fine Screen
    Screen with ruling of more than 150 lines per inch.
    Finish Size
    Size of printed product after production is complete.
    Finish
    Surface characteristic of paper.
    Finishing
    Inclusive term sometimes used for all bindery operations.
    Fixer
    Chemical that prevents deterioration of images on photosensitive paper.
    Flash Exposure
    In halftone photography, the supplementary exposure given to strengthen the dots in the shadow areas of negatives.
    Flat
    In photography, characteristic of an image that lacks contrast. In printing, an assembly of negatives taped to masking material and ready for platemaking.
    Flexography
    Method of printing on a web press using rubber plates with raised images.
    Flood
    To cover a sheet with ink or varnish.
    Flop
    Turning a negative over to create a mirror image. In an electronic environment, flop or mirror is a function that creates a mirror image, either horizontally or vertically, of an image or portion of an image.
    Flow
    The ability of an ink to spread over the surface of the rollers of a press.
    Flush Cover
    Cover that is trimmed to the same size as inside pages, as with paperback books.
    Flush Left or Right
    Type aligning vertically along the left or right side of the column.
    FOB
    Abbreviation for free on board, as it applies to delivery.
    Foil Emboss
    To foil stamp and emboss an image.
    Foil Stamping
    Method of printing on a letterpress using thin metallic or pigmented film and die.
    Folio
    Page number. Low folio is the left hand page, high folio is the right.
    Font
    Complete assortment of upper and lower case characters of one typeface.
    Forest industry
    a diverse group of manufacturers that harvest, process, and use timber in their products. Activities include the harvesting of timber, conversion of logs to primary timber products (lumber, plywood, wood pulp), and the conversion of primary timber products to secondary or final products (furniture, paper goods).
    Forest Management Certification
    The process by which a landowner certifies that their forestland has been audited (by an independent, third party) and has been found to conform to acceptable standards of sustainable forest management. Private, industrial landowners, Timber Investment Management Organizations (TIMOs), non-industrial private landowners, and groups of landowners can obtain certification for forestlands. In addition, other certification systems such as point-of-harvest and logger certification programs aim to certify harvesting operations on forestlands but these systems are not yet recognized as part of forest certification standards. Over 70 international and regional standards exist worldwide.
    Forest Stewardship Council
    A non-profit organization set up to encourage the use of sustainable practices in forestry worldwide.
    Forestland
    Land at least 10% stocked by forest trees of any size, including land that formerly had such tree cover and will be naturally or artificially regenerated.
    Form
    One side of a press sheet.
    Format
    Size, shape, and overall style of a layout or printed piece.
    Formula Pricing
    Printing prices based on standard papers, formats, ink colors, and quantities.
    Fountain
    Reservoir for ink, varnish or water on a press.
    Four-Color Process
    Technique of printing that uses the four “process” colors (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, & Black) of ink to simulate color photographs or illustrations.
    Free Sheet
    Paper made from cooked wood fibers mixed with chemicals and washed free of impurities.
    French Fold
    Two folds at right angles to each other.
    Fully Saturated
    Photographic term for rich color.
    Fuzz
    Fibers projecting from the surface of a sheet of paper.

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    G

    Galley
    Typeset copy before being made into pages.
    Galley Proof
    A proof of typeset copy before being made into pages.
    Gang
    To reproduce two or more printed pieces or multiple copies of the same piece simultaneously on one sheet of paper. Also, to halftone or separate more than one image in only one exposure.
    Gather
    To assemble signatures into the proper sequence for binding.
    GBC Binding
    General Binding Corporation trade name for plastic comb binding.
    GCR
    Gray Component Replacement. Replacing the graying component of CMY with black.
    Gear Streaks
    In printing, parallel streaks appearing across the printed sheet at the same interval as gear teeth on the cylinder.
    Ghost Halftone
    Halftone that has been screened to produce a very faint image.
    Ghosting
    Phenomenon of a faint image on a printed sheet where it was not intended to appear.
    Gloss
    Characteristic of paper, ink, or varnish that appears shiny and reflects relatively large amounts of light.
    Glossy
    Photographic print made on glossy paper.
    Goldenrod Paper
    In offset, a specially-coated masking paper of yellow or orange color used by strippers to assemble and position negatives for exposure on plates.
    Gothic Type
    Type without serifs.
    Grain
    In paper, the direction in which fibers are aligned. In photography, crystals that make up emulsion on film.
    Grain Long or Grain Short
    Paper whose fibers parallel the long or short dimension of the sheet.
    Graphic Arts
    The crafts, industries, and professions related to designing and printing visual communications.
    Graphic Designer
    Professional who conceives of the design for, plans how to produce, and may coordinate production of a printed piece, or other visual communications medium.
    Gravure
    Method of printing using etched metal cylinders.
    Gray Balance
    In four-color process printing, proper proportions of the three process colors (yellow, magenta, and cyan) create the appearance of neutral gray with no apparent hue.
    Gray Scale
    Strip of standard gray tones, ranging from white to black placed at the side of original copy during photography to measure tonal range and contrast.
    Gripper Edge
    Edge of a sheet held by the grippers, thus the first edge through a sheetfed press.
    Gripper Margin
    Unprintable blank edge of paper on which the grippers clasp the sheet, usually 1/2 inch or less wide.
    Grippers
    Metal fingers which hold paper and carry it through printing impression, to the delivery end of a press.
    Groundwood Paper
    Newsprint and other inexpensive papers made from pulp created by grinding wood mechanically.
    Growing stock
    All the trees growing in a forest or in a specified part of it, usually commercial species, meeting specified standards of size, quality, and vigor, and generally expressed in terms of number or volume.
    Gusset
    Expandable portion of a bag, file folder, or envelope.
    Gutter
    Inner margins between type and binding. Space between columns of type.

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    H

    Hairline
    Very thin line or gap about the width of a hair: 1/100 inch.
    Halation
    In photography, a blurred effect, resembling a halo, usually occurring in highlight areas or around bright objects.
    Half Web
    Web press whose width and cutoff allow printing eight 8-1/2″ x 11″ pages on one press sheet.
    Halftone
    A photograph of continuous-tones through a screen to convert the image into dots. The result may be either positive or negative and on film or paper.
    Hard Copy
    The output of a computer or printer. Also, the material sent to a typesetter in typed form, for conversion into typeset material.
    Head Margin
    The white space above first line on the page.
    Heat-Set Ink
    Special inks for high speed printing which set rapidly when heated and quickly chilled.
    Heat-Set Web
    Web press equipped with oven to make ink dry faster, thus able to print on coated paper.
    Hickey
    Spot or imperfection in printing, most visible in areas of heavy ink coverage.
    High Contrast
    Few or no tonal gradations between dark and light areas.
    High Grade Deinking
    Printed and colored waste from industrial sources, plus suitable office waste that has been separated after collection by a waste paper processing facility.
    High Key
    An image that mainly consists of highlights and midtones. For example, eggs in a white bowl.
    High-Bulk Paper
    Paper made relatively thick in proportion to its basis weight.
    Highlights
    The lightest areas in a photograph or halftone.
    Holding Fee
    Charge made to clients who keep photographs longer than agreed to.
    Holdout (ink)
    A property of coated paper with low ink absorption which allows ink to set on the surface with high gloss. Papers with too much holdout cause problems with set-off. A coated glossy paper has a high holdout rate, while paper stock such as newsprint or 20 lb. bond has a high absorption, or low holdout rate.
    Hot Type
    Type made from metal.
    House Sheet
    General-use paper ordered in large quantities and kept in stock by a printer.
    Hue
    The attribute of a color that is defined by the dominant wavelength of light it transmits or reflects, distinguishing it from other colors. It is one of the three dimensions of color.
    Hue Error
    The difference between a printed color and the ideal color which it is supposed to represent. For example, cyan ink used in four-color process work should ideally reflect all of the green and blue frequencies of light that fall on it, while it should absorb all of the red frequencies. In reality, the ink will not achieve this state of perfection.

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    I

    Image Area
    Portion of paper on which ink appears.
    Image Assembly
    Alternate term for Stripping.
    Image Enhancements
    Electronic functions, such as shading, coloring, highlighting, and zooming, that accent an image or portion of an image.
    Imposition
    Arrangement of pages on mechanicals or flats so they will appear in proper sequence after press sheets are folded and bound.
    Impression
    In printing, one pressing of paper against type, plate, blanket, or die to transfer an image.
    Impression Cylinder
    Cylinder on a press that presses paper against the blanket (offset) or plate (gravure).
    Imprint
    To print additional copy on a previously printed sheet.
    Index Paper
    Light weight board paper for writing and easy erasure.
    Indicia
    Postal permit information printed on objects to be mailed and accepted by USPS in lieu of stamps.
    Industrial Waste Paper
    Waste paper created as a by-product of industry such as scrap, trimmings and cuttings from printing and converting plants.
    Ink Fountain
    Reservoir on a printing press that holds ink.
    Ink Jet
    Method of printing by spraying droplets of ink through computer-controlled nozzles.
    Inkometer
    An instrument for measuring the tack of printing inks.
    Insert
    A printed piece prepared for insertion into a publication or another printed piece.
    Integral Proof
    Color proof of separation negatives exposed in register on one piece of proofing paper.
    Interface
    To link two or more electronic devices so they can communicate or function as one unit.
    International Organization for Standardization 14001 (ISO 14001)
    ISO 14000 is actually a family of standards that are referred to under this generic title for convenience. It consists of standards and guidelines relating to management systems, and related supporting standards on terminology and specific tools, such as auditing (the process of checking that the management system conforms to the standard). ISO 14000 is primarily concerned with “environmental management”. In plain language, this means what the organization does to minimize harmful effects on the environment caused by its activities. The international voluntary standard for environmental management systems (EMS) known as ISO 14001 is currently the subject of heated debate. Proponents of ISO 14001 argue that the new standard will be an effective tool for improving industrial environmental performance and help to ease burdens on environmental regulators. At the same time, many in the environmental community worry that compliance with ISO 14000 does not guarantee environmental improvements.
    Internegative
    Negative made from a transparency for the purpose of making photographic prints.
    Invasive species
    animals, plants, and pathogens non-native to a country or region that threaten native forms of life in that region.
    ISBN
    International Standard Book Number assigned by the book’s publisher using a system administered by the R. R. Bowker Company in New York City.
    ISSN
    International Standard Serial Number assigned by the Library of Congress in Washington, DC, to magazines, newsletters, and other serials requesting it.
    Italics
    Characters that slant to the right.

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    J

    Job Ticket/Job Jacket
    Alternate term for Work Order.
    Jog
    To straighten or align sheets of paper in a stack.
    Justified Type
    Flush margins both left and right.

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    K

    Kerning
    The use of negative letterspace between certain characters that makes them appear better fitted together.
    Key
    To code separate pieces of copy to a layout or mechanical using a system of numbers or letters.
    Keyboard
    Part of the terminal device similar in appearance to a typewriter, where characters are typed to enter data into a computer or typesetter.
    Keyline
    Inked lines on artwork that serve as guidelines.
    Kiss Die Cut
    To die cut, but not all the way through the paper.
    Kiss Impression
    A very light printing impression, just enough to produce an image on the paper.
    Knock Out
    Alternate term for Mask Out.
    Knockout Film
    Alternate term for Masking Material such as Rubylith.
    Kraft Paper
    Strong paper, usually brown, most commonly used as wrapping paper and in the production of bags.

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    L

    LAB
    A system for describing, measuring, and controlling color, using hue, luminance, and brightness established by the International Committee on Illumination (CIE).
    Lacquer
    A clear coating, usually glossy, applied to a printed sheet for protection or appearance.
    Laid Finish
    Grid of parallel lines on paper simulating surface of handmade paper.
    Laminate
    A plastic film bonded by heat and pressure for protection and appearance.
    Large-Format Camera
    Camera that makes negatives 4″ x 5″ or larger.
    Laser
    The acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. The laser is an intense light beam with very narrow band width that can produce images by electronic impulses. It makes possible imaging by remote control from computers or facsimile transmission.
    Laser Platemaking
    The use of lasers for scanning pasteups and/or exposing plates.
    Laser Printing
    Method of photocopying using a laser beam to charge the drum.
    Layout
    Sketch or drawing of a design for a proposed printed piece showing position, size, and color of copy.
    Leader
    Line or row of dots guiding the eye across a page to a specific point.
    Leading
    Amount of space between baselines of type, expressed in points.
    Leading Edge
    Edge of a sheet of paper that enters the press first, also known as the Gripper Edge.
    Ledger Paper
    Strong, smooth bond paper used for keeping business records.
    Legible
    Characteristics of copy which make it easily readable, including typeface, size, leading, quality of printing, and sufficient contrast with the paper on which it appears.
    Letter Spacing
    Amount of space between letters, usually adjustable.
    Letterpress
    A press that prints from cast metal type or plates that on which the image or printing areas are raised above the non-printing areas.
    Ligature
    Two letters that, because of their design, may be typeset as one character. The letters “fi” and “fl” form ligatures in many typefaces.
    Light Table
    A table with a translucent glass surface lit from below, used by production artists and strippers.
    Light Weight Paper
    Book grade paper of basis weight 40# or less with high opacity for its weight.
    Line Conversion Screen
    Piece of film containing line patterns that break copy into patterns as light passes through.
    Line Copy
    Any copy suitable for reproduction without using a halftone screen.
    Line Measure
    The width of a line of type.
    Line Negative
    High contrast negative usually made from line copy.
    Lines Per Inch
    The number of lines or rows of dots there are per inch in a screen and therefore in a screen tint, halftone, or separation.
    Line Screen
    The number of lines of dots per linear inch on a halftone screen.
    Liquid Laminate
    Plastic applied to paper as liquid, then bonded and cured into a hard, glossy finish.
    Lithography
    Method of printing using a chemically-coated plate whose image areas attract ink and whose non-image areas repel ink.
    Live Area
    Alternate term for Image Area.
    Logo
    Assembly of type and art into a distinctive symbol unique to an organization, business, or product.
    Loupe
    Alternate term for Graphic Arts Magnifier.
    Lower Case
    Letters that are not capitals.
    Luminance
    One of the components of an HSL (hue, saturation, luminance) RGB (red, green, blue) image on a video monitor. It is the highest of the RGB values plus the lowest of the RGB values, divided by two.
    Low Key
    Describes an image that mainly consists of midtones and shadows. For example, a black cat sitting on a gray chair.

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    M

    M
    Roman numeral for 1,000. Used as an abbreviation for 1,000, as in 1000 sheets of paper.
    Machine Coated
    Paper which is coated one or two sides on a paper machine.
    Magenta
    One of the four process colors; also known as process red.
    Magenta Screen
    A dyed contact screen, used for making halftones.
    Mailing Service
    Business specializing in inserting, labelling, sealing, metering, and mailing large quantities of printed pieces.
    Makeready
    All activities required to set up a press before production begins. Also refers to paper used in the process.
    Makeup
    To arrange type and graphics into their proper pattern using layout as a guide.
    Manila Paper
    Strong, buff-colored paper, most commonly used to make envelopes and file folders.
    Margin
    Space outside image area, forming border of a page or sheet.
    Mark Up
    Using standard symbols and proofreaders’ marks, to write instructions on copy or proof telling how it should be prepared or corrected.
    Mask
    In color separation photography, an intermediate photographic negative or positive used in color correction. In offset lithography, opaque material used to protect open or selected areas of a printing plate during exposure.
    Mask Out
    To cover selected copy or art so it will not appear on a negative or plate.
    Masking
    Defining an area in an image which will be color-corrected or edited separately from the rest of the image. This may be done on a video screen using computer equipment, or it may be done on a conventional mechanical with rubylith masks.
    Masking Material
    Opaque material, often film, used in pasteup to outline photographs or in platemaking to withhold light from non-image areas.
    Matchprint
    3M™ trade name for integral color proof.
    Matte Finish
    Slightly dull finish on coated, lightly-calendered paper.
    Master limited partnership (MLP)
    a limited partnership that is publicly traded. MLPs combine the tax benefits of a limited partnership with the liquidity of a publicly traded company.
    Maximum Density
    The measurement of the blackest or darkest area of an image on film; that is, the area with the maximum ability to stop light.
    Mechanical
    Camera-ready assembly of type, graphics, and other line copy complete with instructions to the printer.
    Mechanical Artist
    Alternate term for Production Artist.
    Mechanical Pulp/Fibers
    Pulp/Fibers obtained by various mechanical means and without removal of lignin and other organic materials associated with cellulose fibers. Included in this pulp category are Groundwood (GW), Thermomechanical Pulp (TMP), and Chemi-Thermomechanical Pulp (CTMP).
    Mechanical Separation
    Mechanical prepared using a separate overlay for each color to be printed.
    Media Conversion
    Alternate term for Data Conversion from one digital coding to another.
    Medium Format Camera
    Camera that makes 2″ x 2″ negatives.
    Medium Screen
    Screen with ruling of 133 or 150 lines per inch.
    Metallic Ink
    Ink containing powdered metal that sparkles in light.
    Micrometer
    Instrument used to measure thickness of paper.
    Middle Tones
    Tones in a photograph or illustration about half as dark as its shadow areas and represented by dots between 30% and 70% of full size.
    Midtone
    Tonal values that are seen in the mid-level range between highlight and shadow. Broadly defined, these are within the 25% to 75% range (1/4 tone to 3/4 tone); narrowly defined, around the 50% range.
    Midtone Placement
    In the production of four-color halftones using a scanner, the process of choosing a dot value that will represent midtones. This is a matter of judgment, depending on the look of the original art.
    Mill Broke (EPA)
    Any paper waste generated before completion of the papermaking process. The papermaking process consists of “those manufacturing operations up to and including the cutting and trimming of the paper machine reel into smaller rolls or rough sheets.”
    Mill Swatch
    Paper sample book provided by a mill.
    Mimeograph Bond
    Highly absorbent paper made for the mimeograph method of printing.
    Mimeograph
    Method of printing using a plastic stencil mounted on a rotating drum containing ink.
    Minimum Density
    The measurement of the whitest or lightest area of an image on film; that is, the area with the minimum ability to stop light.
    Mockup
    Alternate term for Dummy.
    Model Release
    Contract authorizing commercial use of a photograph that includes image of a recognizable person or private property.
    Modem
    Short for modulator/demodulator, a device that converts digital signals to analog tones and vice versa so that systems based on electronic memories can interface over telephone lines.
    Moire
    Undesirable pattern in halftones and screen tints made with improperly aligned screens.
    Mottle
    Spotty, uneven ink coverage especially noticeable in large solids.
    Mounting Board
    Any thick, smooth piece of board paper used to paste up copy or mount photographs.
    Multicolor Printing
    Printing done in more than one ink color.
    Mylar
    DuPont® trade name for polyester film.

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    N

    Negative
    Film containing an image in which the values of the original are reversed. A piece of film on which a negative image appears.
    Negative Space
    Alternate term for White Space.
    Net annual growth
    the average annual net increase in the volume of trees during the period between inventories. Components of net annual growth include the increment in the net volume of trees at the beginning of the period surviving to the end of the period, plus the net volume of trees reaching the minimum size class during the year, minus the volume of trees that died and the net volume of trees that became cull during the period.
    Non-Image Area
    Portion of mechanical, negative, or plate that will not print.
    Non-Reproducing Blue
    Light blue color that does not record on graphic arts film, therefore may be used to write instructions on mechanicals.
    Non-timber forest product (NTFP)
    any forest product except timber, including resins, oils, leaves, bark, plants other than trees, fungi, and animals or animal products.
    Non-wood or tree-free fiber
    Fiber that comes from sources other than trees, such as agricultural byproducts, kenaf, and hemp. These fiber sources are commonly used in other parts of the world, and can be cultivated in America to help reduce pressure on forest lands.
    Novelty Printing
    Printing on products such as pencils, balloons, and ashtrays.

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    O

    Oblong
    A booklet or catalog bound on the shorter dimension.
    Off-Press Proofs/Pre-Press Proofs
    Proofs made by photomechanical means in less time and at lower cost than press proofs.
    Offset Paper
    Alternate term used for Uncoated Book Paper.
    Offset Printing
    Printing process using an intermediate blanket cylinder to transfer an image from the image carrier to the paper.
    Oil Mounting
    The application of a coating of mineral oil or clear paraffin between a transparency and a scanner cylinder to minimize defects such as Newton rings, dust, dirt, scratches, etc. in a color separation.
    O.K. Sheet
    Printed sheet representing final inking adjustments approved before production run begins.
    Old-Growth Forest
    The fourth and final stage of stand development, following mature forest, in which the forest canopy is generally composed of scattered remaining trees that assumed dominance following natural disturbance along with newly dominant, shade-tolerant trees. Other characteristics of old-growth forests may include accumulated coarse woody debris, snags and canopy gaps created by fallen trees. Because of these features, and the presence of an understory, old-growth forests generally exhibit complex stand vegetation, and provide habitat for many species. Development of old-growth forest generally takes from 100 to 200 years, with variation depending on forest type. The last remaining sizable area of old-growth forest in the contiguous United States lies in the Pacific Northwest; only a few small and isolated patches of old-growth remain in eastern forests. However, as a stage in stand development, old-growth forest could also develop in eastern forests (and was present in presettlement forests).
    Opacity
    Characteristic of paper that helps prevent printing on one side from showing on the other.
    Opaque
    Non transparent. Also, a verb meaning to cover flaws in negatives with paint or tape.
    Opaque Ink
    Heavily pigmented ink that blocks out color of underlying ink or paper.
    Orthochromatic
    Photographic surfaces insensitive to red but sensitive to ultraviolet, blue, and yellow rays.
    Outline Halftone
    Halftone in which background has been removed to isolate or silhouette an image.
    Overhang Cover
    A cover larger in size than the pages it encloses.
    Overlay
    Sheet of tissue or acetate taped to a mechanical so that it covers the mounting board.
    Overprint
    To print over a previously printed image.
    Overrun
    The number of pieces that were printed in excess of the quantity specified.
    Overs
    Printed pieces on an overrun.
    Overset
    In composition, type set in excess of space needs in publications, etc.

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    P

    Pad
    To bind by applying glue along one edge of a stack of sheets.
    Page Count
    Total number of pages, including blanks and printed pages without numbers.
    Page Makeup
    In stripping, assembly of all elements to make up a page. In computerized typesetting, the electronic assembly of page elements to compose a complete page with all elements in place on a video display terminal and on film or plate.
    Page Proof
    Type output in page format complete with headings, rules, and numbers.
    Pages Per Inch
    Number of pages per inch of thickness of a bound publication. Each sheet has two pages (front and back).
    Pagination
    Assembly of type with other line copy into page format. When done by hand, this is makeup or pasteup; when done electronically, it is computer aided pagination (CAP).
    Paper Dummy
    Unprinted sample of a proposed printed piece trimmed, folded, and if necessary, bound using paper specified for the job.
    Parchment
    Paper that simulates writing surfaces made from animal skins.
    Parent Sheet
    Paper distributor term for sheet 17″ x 22″ or larger.
    Paste Bind
    To bind by adhering sheets with glue along the fold of the spine.
    Paste Up
    To adhere copy to mounting boards and, if necessary, overlays so it is assembled into a camera-ready mechanical.
    Peaking
    A common expression used to describe the electronic manipulation of gray tones to increase contrast in an image.
    Percentage Wheel
    Alternate term often used for Proportional Scale.
    Perfect Bind
    To bind sheets by trimming at the binding edge and gluing them to a paper cover.
    Perfecting Press
    Press capable of printing both sides of the paper during a single pass.
    Photocopy
    Method of printing that transfers images electrostatically and creates them on paper with powder bonded to the paper by heat.
    Photomechanical
    Pertaining to any platemaking process using photographic negatives or positives exposed onto plates or cylinders covered with photosensitive coatings.
    Photosensitive
    Characteristic of paper, film, and printing plates coated with light-sensitive chemicals.
    Photostat
    Process used to make positive paper prints of line copy and halftones. Often used as alternate term for PMT.
    Phototype
    Type created by projecting light onto photosensitive paper.
    Pica
    Unit of measure equalling 1/6 of an inch often used to express line measure or column width.
    Picking
    Undesirable phenomenon of bits of fiber or coating coming loose from paper during printing.
    Pigment
    Finely-ground particles giving color and opacity to ink.
    Piling
    In printing, the building up of ink on rollers, plate, or blanket. Also, the accumulation of paper coating on the blanket of offset press.
    Pin Register
    The use of accurately positioned holes and special pins on copy, film, flats, plates, and presses to ensure proper register or fit of colors.
    Pinholes
    Tiny holes in the emulsion of negatives or printing plates.
    Pixel
    Short for picture element. Definable locations on a VDT display used to form images on the screen.
    Plate
    See Printing Plate.
    Plate Cylinder
    Cylinder of a press on which the printing plate is mounted.
    Plate-Ready Film
    Alternate term for Flat.
    Platemaker
    In quick printing, process camera that makes plates directly from photographing mechanicals. In commercial printing, machine used to expose plates from flats.
    Platen Press
    A letter press that opens and closes like a clamshell.
    Pleasing Color
    Color that is satisfactory even though it doesn’t match original samples, scenes, or objects.
    Plugged Up
    Undesirable characteristic of printing when ink fills in around halftone dots or type, causing loss of detail.
    PMS
    Pantone Matching System. A color match system for printing inks.
    PMT
    Abbreviation for photomechanical transfer, a Kodak trade name for a process used to make positive paper prints of line copy and halftones.
    Point
    In paper, unit of thickness equalling 1/1000 inch. In typesetting, unit of height equalling 1/12 of pica and 1/72 of an inch, used to express type size and leading.
    Porosity
    The property of paper that allows the permeation of air, an important factor in ink penetration.
    Portfolio
    Collection of best work by an artist, photographer, or designer for showing during meetings with prospective clients.
    Position Stat
    Photocopy or PMT made to size and pasted to a mechanical showing how to crop, scale, and position loose art or photos.
    Positive
    Film containing an image in which the dark and light values are the same as the original.
    Post-consumer Fiber
    Paper, paperboard and fibrous wastes that have passed through their use as a consumer item that enter and are collected from municipal solid waste. (RAC) Fiber derived from post-consumer materials as defined within RCRA Section 6002 and including fiber derived from recovered paper which has been printed and/or contains inks or colored dyes (excluding whitening or “bluing” dyes or agents).
    Pre-consumer Waste
    Pre-consumer materials are those that have not met their intended end-use by a consumer and include allowable waste left over from manufacturing, converting, and printing processes. Examples: mill-converting scraps, pre-consumer deinking material, pulp substitutes. Magazines and newspapers that were never bought also are termed pre-consumer.
    Prescribed fire or burn
    the deliberate burning of wildland fuels in either their natural or their modified state and under specified environmental conditions, which allows the fire to be confined to a predetermined area and produces the fireline intensity and rate of spread required to attain planned resource management objectives.
    Press Check
    Event at which test sheets are examined before production run is authorized to begin.
    Press Proof
    Proof made on press using the plates, paper, and ink specified for the job.
    Press Sheet
    One sheet as it comes off the press.
    Press-On Type
    Alternate term for Transfer Type.
    Pressure-Sensitive Paper
    Material with adhesive coating, protected by a backing sheet until used, which will stick without moistening.
    Price Break
    Quantity level at which unit cost of paper or printing drops.
    Primary forest
    an original forest, usually containing large trees, that has not been significantly disturbed or influenced by human activity.
    Printer
    In printing trade, person who owns or manages print shop or runs printing press. In 4-color process printing, one of the separation negatives.
    Printing
    Any process that repeatedly transfers an image.
    Printing and Writing Papers
    High-quality papers used to carry printed information. In all, there are thousands of different types of grades of printing and writing papers which, together, account for close to 30 percent of all the paper and paperboard made in the United States.
    Printing Plate
    Surface carrying image to be printed.
    Process Blue
    Alternate term for Cyan.
    Process Camera
    Graphic arts camera used to photograph mechanicals and other camera-ready copy.
    Process Colors
    The colors needed for 4-color process printing: yellow, magenta, cyan, and black.
    Process Color Separation
    A consequence of the offset lithographic process. In order to print full-color images, it is necessary to prepare four separate plates, one for each of the process colors – cyan, magenta, yellow, and black. Plates are then overprinted on an offset press to render a full color printed document (or at least the illusion of full color).
    Process Inks
    Inks in the four process colors.
    Process Printing
    Alternate term for 4-Color Process Printing.
    Process Red
    Alternate term for Magenta.
    Processed Chlorine Free (PCF)
    This refers to recycled paper made without the use of chlorine or chlorine derivatives. Common bleaching agents are hydrogen peroxide (which, when used, breaks down into water and oxygen), and ozone.
    Procurement System Certification
    For instance, International Paper’s procurement system is certified to the Sustainable Forestry Initiative standard.
    Production Artist
    Person who does pasteup.
    Program
    Sequence of instructions for a computer. Same as software.
    Progressive Proof
    Press proof showing each color of a job separately or several colors in combination.
    Proof
    Test sheet made to reveal errors or flaws, predict results, and record how a printing job is intended to appear.
    Proof OK
    Customer signature approving a proof and authorizing the job to advance to the next stage.
    Proof Sheet
    Photographic term for sheet of images made by contact printing negatives.
    Proofing Press
    Press on which the proof is printed.
    Proofread
    To examine copy or a proof for errors in writing or composition.
    Proofreaders’ Marks
    Standard symbols and abbreviations used to mark up manuscripts and proofs. Most dictionaries and style manuals include charts of proofreaders’ marks.
    Proportional Scale
    Device used to calculate percent that an original image must be reduced or enlarged to yield a specific reproduction size.
    Publish
    To produce and sell or otherwise make available printed communication to the public.
    Pulp
    Mixture of wood and/or cotton fibers, chemicals, and water from which mills make paper.
    Pulp Substitutes
    Unprinted recovered paper, virtually all of which comes from the conversion of paper into products like books or envelopes. As the name implies, pulp substitutes are used in place of virgin fibers and do not require deinking.
    Pulpwood
    roundwood, whole-tree chips, or wood residues that are used for the production of wood pulp.

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    Q

    Quadratone
    A black and white image reproduced through the four-color process in which black is simulated by levels of gray to bring out detail and provide dimension.
    Quick Printer
    Printer whose business attitude emphasizes basic quality, small presses, and fast service.
    Quotation
    Printer’s offer to print a job for a specific price calculated from specifications and dummies provided by customer.

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    R

    R Print
    Color photographic print made from transparency without using internegative.
    Ragged Right or Left
    Characteristic of type not flush right or left.
    Railroad Board
    Heavy board paper used for posters and signs.
    Raised Printing
    Alternate term for Thermography.
    RC Paper
    Resin-coated paper for typesetting and PMTs that, when properly processed, will not yellow.
    Readable
    Characteristic of copy that is written, edited and set in a typeface selected and composed to make it easy to read.
    Real estate investment trust (REIT)
    a real estate company that offers common shares to the public. An REIT stock is similar to any other stock that represents ownership in an operating business but has two unique features: its primary business is managing groups of income-producing properties, and it must distribute most of its profits (90 percent) as dividends. By having REIT status, a company avoids corporate income tax. A regular corporation makes a profit and pays taxes on the entire profits, and then decides how to allocate its after-tax profits between dividends and reinvestment; a REIT simply distributes all or almost all of its profits and skips the taxation.
    Ream
    500 sheets of paper.
    Recovered Paper
    Paper products and paper by-products which, if not recovered, would otherwise be solid waste, and which are intended for sale, use, reuse, or recycling.
    Recto
    Right-hand page of an open publication.
    Recyclable Symbol
    The three arrows standing alone represent a product which is recyclable.
    Recycled paper
    The EPA guidelines require a minimum of 30% post-consumer content for uncoated printing and writing paper, and a minimum of 10% post-consumer content for coated papers. Other forms of paper, such as newsprint, corrugated packaging, tissue, and others, also require post-consumer content. The EPA doesn’t consider mill broke, the unprinted trimming and converting scrap from paper mills themselves, recycled content.
    Recycled paper making
    Recycled paper, either pre or post-consumer materials needs to be washed and is often deinked prior to being pulped. The pulp goes through a bleaching process to make it whiter. Once the pulp is bleached, it enters a series of phases including the following: the paper forming section; the press section where water is removed by pressing the wet paper between rolls and felts; and the drying section where the moisture content is reduced to the desired level; and the calendering section where the paper is compacted and smoothed progressively as it travels down a stack of steel rolls. Once completed the paper is stored in either rolls or cut into sheets.
    Recycled Symbol
    Three chasing arrows superimposed over a dark circle designate that a product is made with recycled material, but doesn’t by itself indicate the percent recycled content.
    Recycling
    The series of activities, including collection, separation, and processing, by which products or other materials are recovered from or otherwise diverted from the solid waste stream for use in the form of raw materials in the manufacture of new products.
    Reflection Copy
    Originals such as photographs or drawings which have been created on a reflective surface such as paper, as opposed to transparent film.
    Reflective Copy
    Copy that is not transparent.
    Reforestation
    The re-growth of forest through either natural regeneration or by planting where forest was previously removed.
    Register
    To position printing in proper relation to edges of paper and other printing on the same sheet. Such printing is said to be in register.
    Register Marks
    Cross-hair lines on mechanicals and negatives that guide strippers and printers.
    Renewable Energy Certificate (REC)
    Also known as Green Tags, Green Certificates, or Green Credits. This refers to the environmental attributes associated with the generation of renewable electricity, most often the avoided pollution from not using fossil fuels. These can be sold with the electricity itself as green power or separately as RECs.
    Repro
    ype with corrections made and elements in position ready to reproduce by printing.
    Reprographics
    General term for xerography, diazo, and other methods of copying.
    Reprography
    Copying and duplicating.
    Retouch
    To enhance a photo or correct its flaws.
    Retouching
    A technique, either manual or electronic, used to eliminate flaws or improve the appearance of an image prior to making negatives.
    Reverse
    Type or other image reproduced by printing the background rather than the image itself, allowing the underlying color of paper to show in the shape of the image.
    RGB
    The additive primaries (Red, Green and Blue), which are used in video monitors, as opposed to the subtractive primaries (yellow, magenta, cyan, and black), which are used in four-color process printing.
    Right Reading Emulsion Down (RRED):
    Copy reading correctly from left to right with the film emulsion down.
    Right Reading Emulsion Up (RREU)
    Copy reading correctly from left to right with the film emulsion up.
    Right-Angle Fold
    In binding, a term used for two or more folds that are at 90¡ angles to each other.
    River
    Distracting pattern of white space running vertically through text type.
    Roman Type
    Type with serifs. Also type that is upright (not italic).
    Rotogravure
    Gravure printing using a web press.
    Rough Layout
    Simple sketch giving general idea of size and placement of type and art.
    Roundwood
    a length of cut tree generally having a round cross section, such as a log or bolt.
    Rubylith
    Zip-a-Tone trade name for red masking film.
    Rule
    Line used for graphic effect.
    Run
    Total number of copies ordered or printed.
    Runaround
    Type set to conform to the outline of a photograph or illustration.
    Runnability
    Paper properties that affect the ability of the paper to run on the press.
    Running Head
    Title or headline repeated at the top of every page.

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    S

    S corporation (S-corp)
    a corporation that elects not to be taxed as a corporation. Rather than directly paying federal income tax on its earnings, the S-corp passes along all its income or losses and other tax items to its shareholders.
    Saddle Stitch
    To bind by stapling sheets together where they fold at the spine.
    Safelight
    In photography, the special darkroom lamp used for illumination without exposing sensitized materials.
    Sans-Serif Type
    Type without serifs.
    Saturation
    One of the three dimensions of color, and the attribute of color that defines its degree of strength of difference from white. The higher the saturation, the brighter and lighter the image. The lower the saturation, the duller and grayer the image.
    Saw Log
    A log that meets minimum regional standards of diameter, length, and defect, intended for sawing.
    Scale
    To identify the percent by which images should be enlarged or reduced.
    Scaling Wheel
    Alternate term for Proportional Scale.
    Scanner
    Electronic device used to make color separations and sometimes halftones and duotones.
    Score
    To compress paper along a line so it will fold more easily.
    Screen
    Piece of film with dots of uniform density, used to make plates that will print screen tints. See also Halftone Screen.
    Screen Angles
    In color reproduction, angles at which the halftone screens are placed with relation to one another, to avoid undesirable moire patterns. A set of angles often used are: black 45¡, magenta 75¡, yellow 90¡, cyan 105¡.
    Screen Printing
    Method of printing by forcing ink through a mesh stencil.
    Screen Ruling
    The number of rows or lines of dots per inch in a screen for tint or halftone.
    Screen Tint
    Area of image printed with dots so ink coverage is less than 100% and simulates shading or a lighter color.
    Scribe
    To scratch lines into emulsion of a negative.
    Scum
    Undesirable, thin film of ink covering non-image area of printed sheet.
    Self-Cover
    Publication made entirely from the same paper so that cover is printed simultaneously with inside pages.
    Self-Mailer
    Printed piece designed to be mailed without an envelope.
    Separation
    Alternate term for Color Separation.
    Serif
    Short line crossing the ending strokes of most characters in some typefaces.
    Serif Type
    Type with serifs.
    Set Solid
    Type set with no leading between lines.
    Set-Off
    Undesirable transfer of wet ink from the top of one sheet to the underside of another as they lie in the delivery stack of the press. Also called offset.
    Sew
    To use thread to fasten signatures together at the spine of a book.
    Sharp
    Characteristic of an image in clear focus.
    Sheeter
    Device to cut roll of paper into sheets.
    Sheetfed Press
    Press that prints on sheets of paper, rather than rolls.
    Shingling
    Allowance made during pasteup or stripping to compensate for creep.
    Short Grain
    Alternate term for Grain Short.
    Short Ink
    An ink that does not flow freely.
    Show Through
    Printing on one side of paper that can be seen on the other side.
    Shrink Wrap
    Method of tightly wrapping packages or products in plastic film.
    Shutdowns
    Periods during which the press is not running.
    Side Stitch
    To bind by stapling through sheets along one edge.
    Signature
    Sheet of printed pages which, when folded, become part of a publication.
    Silhouette
    An electronic filtering function that can outline an area or object in an image and extract the background.
    Silhouette Halftone
    Alternate term often used for Outline Halftone.
    Sizing
    As a verb, the treatment of paper that gives it resistance to the penetration of liquids or vapors. As a noun, chemicals mixed with pulp that make paper less able to absorb moisture.
    Slip Sheet
    Blank sheet placed between printed products to prevent setoff or scuffing during handling and shipping. Also, a blank sheet of colored paper placed between unbound collated publications to indicate separation.
    Slow Film
    Film that requires a relatively large amount of light to record an image.
    Slur
    Undesirable phenomenon of halftone dots becoming slightly elongated during printing.
    Small Caps
    Capital letters approximately the height of lower case letters.
    Soft Bind
    Alternate term for Perfect Bind.
    Soft Copy
    Copy in electronic memory.
    Soft Cover
    Bound without a case; usually perfect bound, but also sewn and bound with a paper cover.
    Solid
    Any geometrical area of the sheet that has received 100% ink coverage.
    Spec Sheet
    Short for sheet on which specifications are written.
    Spec Type
    To write type specifications.
    Special Effects
    General term for reproduction of photographs using techniques such as line conversion and posterization.
    Specialty Advertising
    Printed advertising on products such as mugs, matchbooks, jewelry, and pencils.
    Specialty Papers
    Paper distributor term for carbonless, pressure-sensitive, synthetic, and other papers made for specialty applications.
    Specifications
    Complete and precise descriptions of paper, ink, binding, and other features of a printing job. In typography, instructions about typeface and size, line measure, indentations, headlines, etc. Type size and leading are expressed as the upper and lower numerals in a fraction, with the points for leading measured baseline to baseline. Type 10/12 means 10 point type with two points of leading.
    Spectrum
    The bands of color formed when white light is dispersed. Each color has a specific wavelength from the shortest, violet, to the longest, red.
    Spine
    Binding edge of a signature or publication.
    Spiral Bind
    To bind using a spiral of wire or plastic looped through holes.
    Split Fountain
    Technique of printing more than one ink color at a time from a single printing unit.
    Spoilage
    Paper wasted during makeready, printing, or bindery operations.
    Spot Color
    A specific color in a design, usually designated to be printed with a specific matching ink, rather than through process CMYK printing.
    Spot Varnish
    Varnish applied to specific portions of a sheet.
    Stabilization Paper
    Paper for typesetting and PMTs that begins deteriorating a few weeks after use.
    Stamping
    Alternate term for Foil Stamping.
    Stat
    General term for inexpensive direct positive photographic print of line copy or halftone.
    Stat Camera
    Small process camera.
    Stationery
    Letterhead, envelopes, cards, and other printed materials for business correspondence.
    Stencil
    Piece of fabric or film carrying image for screen printing or mimeograph.
    Step-and-Repeat
    In photomechanics, the procedure of multiple exposure using the same image by stepping it into position according to a predetermined layout.
    Stitch Bind
    To bind with wire staples.
    Stock
    Paper or other substrate.
    Stock Photo
    Photograph from a commercial photo library.
    Straight Copy
    Copy that contains no charts, tables, formulas, or other elements that make typesetting complicated and time consuming.
    Streamside Management Zone (SMZ)
    May also be called buffer strips or riparian management areas. Zone of forest along a forest stream where management practices that might affect water quality, fish or other aquatic resources are modified. Properly designed SMZs effectively filter and absorb sediments, maintain shade, protect aquatic and terrestrial riparian habitats, protect channels and streambanks and promote floodplain stability. State Best Management Practices generally recommend SMZs, although restrictions and key parameters (e.g., SMZ width) vary.
    Strike-On Type
    Characters, such as from a typewriter, made when a key or needle hits a ribbon coated with ink or carbon.
    Stripper
    Person who strips negatives and assembles flats.
    Stripping
    Assembling negatives in flats in preparation for making printing plates.
    Substance Weight
    Alternate term for Basis Weight used when referring to bond papers.
    Substrate
    Any surface on which printing is done.
    Subtractive Primaries
    Yellow, magenta and cyan, the hues used for process color printing inks.
    Subtractive Primaries
    When two of the three additive primaries – red, green, and blue light – are superimposed, the result is a subtractive primary; for example, red plus blue equals magenta. Yellow, magenta and cyan, the colors used for four-color process printing, are known as the subtractive primaries.
    Supercalender
    To calender paper extensively until very glossy.
    Surprint
    Alternate term for Overprint.
    Sustainable forestry
    Managing the growth and harvest of trees in a way that supports the environment in all of its facets.
    Sustainability
    The ability to utilize resources while not reducing or depleting them. Also, using resources without disturbing economic and environmental balance.
    Sustainably Harvested Virgin Fiber
    No matter how well we recycle, there will always be the need for virgin fiber in the paper industry. Both trees and non-wood fibers are cultivated for paper making around the world. The United States paper industry is structured almost entirely around wood as the source of fiber. This has resulted in the decimation of our old growth forests. Even today, old growth forests continue to be clear cut to make paper.
    Swash
    Curved flourish on selected letters.
    Swatch book
    Book containing samples of paper or ink colors.
    Synthetic Paper
    Plastic or other petroleum-based paper.

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    T

    TA
    Typesetter alteration; any change made because of typesetter error.
    Tack
    Characteristic of ink making it sticky.
    Tag
    Board grade paper used for products such as tags and file folders.
    Text
    The body matter of a page or book, as distinguished from the headings.
    Text Type
    Type of less than 14 points.
    Thermography
    Method of printing using colorless resin powder and heat applied to wet ink yielding raised images.
    Third Party Certification
    Validation the authenticity of something by someone other than the principals who are involved in a transaction.
    Threatened species
    a plant or animal species likely to become endangered throughout all or a significant portion of its range within the foreseeable future.
    Thumbnail Sketch
    Rough sketch of a design.
    Tick Marks
    Alternate term for Crop Marks.
    Timber investment management organization (TIMO)
    asset management companies that invest in timberland properties on behalf of pension funds, endowments, and foundations. TIMOs may also manage timber investments for wealthy families and individuals. They manage timberland for real estate value as well as forestry returns.
    Timberland
    land declared suitable for producing timber crops and not withdrawn from timber production by statue or administrative regulation. The minimal level of productivity is often set at 20 cubic feet per acre per year.
    Tint
    Alternate term for Screen Tint.
    Tip In or On
    To glue one edge of a sheet to another sheet or signature.
    Tissue Overlay
    A thin translucent paper placed over artwork (mostly mechanicals) for protection; used to indicate color breaks, corrections, and callouts.
    Tonal Range
    Photographic term for density range.
    Toner
    Powder forming the image in photocopying.
    Tooth
    A characteristic of paper, a slightly rough finish, which permits it to take ink readily.
    Total Recycled Fiber
    As defined by RAC, it is fiber derived from recovered paper excluding paper generated in a paper mill prior to the completion of the paper manufacturing process.
    Totally Chlorine Free (TCF)
    This refers to virgin paper made without the use of chlorine or chlorine derivatives. PCF is a more environmentally sound classification than TCF, since this term is reserved for recycled rather than virgin papers.
    Trade Shop
    Printer or other service working primarily for other graphic arts professionals.
    Transfer Key
    3M™ trade name for integral color proof.
    Transfer Type
    Type that can be rubbed off of its backing sheet onto another surface.
    Translite
    Piece of glass or plastic lit from behind and on which a photographic image has been reproduced for display.
    Transparency
    Positive photographic image on film and usually in color which allows light to pass through.
    Transparent Ink
    A printing ink which does not conceal the color beneath. Process inks are transparent so that they will blend to form other colors.
    Trap
    The overlap allowed for two colors to print on the same sheet; used to compensate for misregister and to avoid white space between colors.
    Trim Marks
    Lines on a mechanical, negative, plate, or press sheet showing where to cut edges off of paper or cut paper apart after printing.
    Trim Size
    Size of the printed product after last trim is made.
    Turnaround Time
    Amount of time needed to complete a job – or one stage of it.
    Two-Up
    Two identical printing subjects on a press plate. Usually made by preparing the flat so that it can be exposed successfully in two required locations.
    Type Family
    All the styles of a specific typeface.
    Type Shop
    Typesetting business.
    Type Size
    The height of a typeface measured from the bottom of its descenders to the top of its ascenders, expressed in points.
    Type Specimen Book
    Book showing examples of all typefaces available from one type shop.
    Type Style
    Italic, condensed, bold, and other variations of a typeface that form a type family.
    Typeface
    Set of characters with design features making them similar to each other.
    Typesetter
    Machine or person that sets type.
    Typo
    Short for typographical error.
    Typography
    The art and science of setting type. Also the style and arrangement of type on a printed piece.

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    U

    UCR
    Under Color Removal. Subtracting CMY under black and dark gray areas and replacing the undercolors with additional black.
    Unbleached
    Unbleached paper is either gray or dyed during papermaking. This process involves the least environmental impact. Unbleached paper with post-consumer waste is often non-deinked as well. The ink is visible in the paper in the form of tiny ink dots.
    Uncoated Paper
    Paper that is not coated.
    Underrun
    Production run of fewer copies than the amount specified.
    Unit
    In multicolor presses, refers to the combination of inking, plate and impression operations to print each color. A 4-color press has 4 printing units, each with its own inking, plate and impression functions.
    Unjustified
    Alternate term for Ragged.
    Upper Case
    Capital letters.
    UV Coating
    Liquid laminate bonded and cured with ultraviolet light.

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    V

    Vacuum Frame
    In platemaking, a vacuum device for holding copy and reproduction material in contact during exposure.
    Varnish
    Clear liquid applied like ink on press for beauty and protection.
    Vehicle
    In printing inks, the fluid component which acts as a carrier for the pigment.
    Vellum Finish
    Relatively rough finish on uncoated paper.
    Velox
    Kodak trade name for high-contrast photographic paper. Also refers to a positive made by contact printing a negative to such paper.
    Verso
    Left-handed page of an open publication.
    Video Display Terminal (VDT)
    In phototypesetting, a cathode ray tube (CRT) device with keyboard to display copy, make corrections, combine copy elements and perform other typesetting functions.
    Vignette Halftone
    Halftone whose background gradually fades into white.
    Virgin Fiber
    A fiber from its original source and used for the first time in papermaking.
    Viscosity
    In printing inks, a broad term encompassing the properties of tack and flow.
    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
    Compounds that evaporate from many housekeeping, maintenance and building products made with organic chemicals. In sufficient quantities, VOCs can cause irritation and some are carcinogenic and are suspected of causing exacerbating acute and chronic diseases.

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    W

    Warm Color
    A color with a yellowish or reddish cast.
    Wash Up
    To clean ink from rollers, fountains, and other components of a press.
    Waste
    Alternate term for Spoilage.
    Waste Paper (EPA)
    This category includes all post-consumer recovered materials plus two pre-consumer categories defined as follows: Dry paper and paperboard waste generated after completion of the papermaking process, including envelope cuttings, binding trimmings, and other paper and paperboard waste, resulting from printing, cutting, forming, and other converting operations; bag, box, and carton manufacturing wastes; butt rolls, mill wrappers, and rejected unused stock; and finished paper and paperboard from obsolete inventories of paper and paperboard manufacturers, merchants, wholesalers, dealers, printers, converters, or others.
    Water Fountain
    Reservoir on a press to hold fountain solution.
    Watermark
    Distinctive design created in paper during manufacture.
    Web
    Roll of printing paper.
    Web Break
    Break in paper running through a web press, causing production to stop.
    Web Press
    Press that prints paper from a roll.
    White Space
    Designer term referring to non-image area that frames or sets off copy.
    Widow
    A short line, word or partial word ending a paragraph and appearing as the first line of a column or page. Also, a single or partial word appearing as the final line of a paragraph.
    Wildland
    Land other than that dedicated for other uses, such as agricultural, urban, mining, or parks.
    Wildland fire us
    The management of naturally ignited wildland forest to accomplish specific prestated resource management objectives in predefined geographic areas outlined in fire management plans.
    Window
    Block of masking material on a mechanical that shows position of a photograph or other visual element. Also, an area cut out of masking material.
    Wire-O
    Trade name for method of mechanical binding using double loops of wire.
    With the Grain
    Parallel to the grain direction of paper.
    Word Processing
    Computerized typewriters connected to an electronic storage medium to input, revise, and output data.
    Work and Tumble
    To print one side of a sheet of paper, then turn the sheet over from gripper to back using the opposite gripper edge, but the same side guide to print the second side.
    Work and Turn
    To print one side of a sheet of paper, then turn the sheet over from left to right and print the second side using the same gripper edge to print the second side.
    Wove Finish
    Relatively smooth finish on paper achieved by moderate calendering.

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    X

    X-Height
    Height of lower case letters without their ascenders or descenders, which is height of the letter “x.”
    Xerography
    Alternate term for Photocopying meaning “Dry Writing.”

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    Y

    No listings for Y

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    Z

    No listings for Z

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